Assessing the Progress of Paris Agreement - Climate Change
The 24th Conference of the Parties (COP-24) meeting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is held in Katowice, Poland. The Meeting was held to asses the progress of countries in terms of Paris Agreement (PA) commitments made in 2015
Concered Issue of Global Warming -
- The average global temperature is being crossed a degree Celsius above the preindustrial levels.
- The increased level of CO2 in the atmosphere (410 ppm) is being witnessed for the first time in human history.
- Thus, by the end of the century, children on the planet will witness the warmer temperature by 3-4º C.
- The Perpetual growth is not viable for any species.
- Business-as-usual policies with high consumption by the rich are driving the destruction of ecosystems and mass extinction of species.
- The “sixth extinction”, massive destruction of species on earth is ongoing. ( Prelims 2018)
- Recently the 1.5 Degree Report is being released by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
- It calls for far-reaching, speedy transformative changes by countries in order to stay below 1.5° C.
- The emphasis was made on immediate and drastic drop in GHG emissions through technology and lifestyles, and on mitigation and adaptation.
Outcome of the Paris Conference -
- The Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) were planned ahead of the Paris COP-21.
- Under the plan, each country has described the actions which it would take and the levels to which GHG emissions shall be reduced (mitigation).
- The route map of the countries also described to improve their capacity to live in a warmer world (adaptation).
- There was also the mention of the extent to which these goals required support in the form of finance or technology transfer.
- The Paris Agreement (PA) was ratified rapidly and went into force within a year (in November 2016).
- The agenda of the Katowice meeting's objective is to set guidelines, or agree on a rulebook, to implement pledges made by countries at the Paris Climate Conference in 2015.
Concerns with the Conference -
- Finance - There has been little, if any, progress on finance, technology transfer and capacity development.
- The Article 9 of the Paris Agreement calls for financial support from developed countries that is significantly derived from public funds.
- The amount of $100 billion per year is being expectec to address the mitigation and adaptation needs of developing countries.
- The level of support shall be communicated by the developed as per the Article 9.5, including pledges of additional finance.
- The issue arises that even a rough estimate of financial needs for implementing all the NDCs puts it at $4.4 trillion whereas the pledged fund till 2017 for the cause was less than $30 Billions, according to the CLimate funds updates of 2018
- The developed countires are also being objected for double counting and the counting of double aid
- If to blame th US and its current policies, the other developed natuons are not doing better either.
- Australia and France have had political turmoil due to their climate policies even while experiencing severe weather events.
- Europe is still heavily reliant on coal and European Union emissions were stable in 2014-2016 whereas the U.K. has been relying on fuel from fracking.
Future of the Agreement -
- By the year 2020, the implementation of the activities for the Paris Agreement formally begins and will be concluded in 2030.
- Currently, Doha Amendment period is going on and the second phase of the Kyoto Protocol, which is yet to be ratified.
- A review on progress will be inittiated after the start of the agreement and more stringent targets will be formulated.
Measures and the part of India-
- The accurate and verifiable numbers on the climate flows expected from developed countries towards India.
- The reliable flow will be encouraging and persuading for all countries that commitments shall be made and to be fulfilled.
- A general agreement on estimate adaptation will be there too.
- Altering the lifesyles and economic growth as per the needs of the climate by controlling the high emissions which to be 1.5 degrees that the reports calls for.
- A provision is being made to support the poor countries experiencing economic and non-economic losses and destruction from climate change events.COP-24,